1. Application in nicotine extraction
The nicotine component in tobacco has a high use value in agriculture and medicine. The use of ultrasonic extraction technology can effectively extract the nicotine component in tobacco. In the application research in this area, the researchers mainly investigated the influence of factors such as extractant concentration, solid-liquid ratio, extraction time, and ultrasonic temperature on the extraction efficiency of nicotine components. Cong Xiuzhi uses 40% methanol as the extractant, the solid-liquid ratio is 1:20, the extraction time is 30 minutes, the ultrasonic temperature is 150°C, and the nicotine extraction rate can reach about 7%. Chu Zhibing et al. used 0.4% NaOH as the extractant, the solid-liquid ratio was 1:40, the ultrasonic extraction time at room temperature was 4 hours, and the nicotine extraction rate was 2.12%. 78% ethanol was used as the extractant, the solid-liquid ratio was 1:5, the extraction time was 30 minutes, the ultrasonic temperature was 52°C, and the nicotine extraction volume was 23.1 mg/mL. Using 95% ethanol with pH=4 as the solvent, solid-liquid ratio 1:15, ultrasonic temperature 80℃ for 2 extractions, 45min each time, the nicotine extraction rate can reach 95.42%. Comparative analysis shows that the extraction effect is significantly better than heating Reflux extraction (the latter is only 84.79%).
2. Application in the extraction of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides
Ultrasonic extraction of wolfberry polysaccharides was used, spectrophotometric method was used to measure the content of wolfberry polysaccharides, and the ultrasonic-assisted water leaching extraction process of wolfberry polysaccharides was systematically studied through the stop experiment, and the best technology was determined, namely: 50% ℃, 1:60 ratio of material to water, soaking for 2.5h, ultrasonic extraction for 5min, the highest extraction rate of polysaccharides is 50.36%.
3. Application in lycopene extraction
Researchers use ultrasonic extraction process conditions of lycopene. The best process conditions are determined as follows: ultrasonic output power is 320W, extraction solvent is a kind of perfume ester, extraction time is 6min, each irradiation time is 3s, solid-liquid ratio is 1:2, and extraction level is two. The total pigment extraction rate was 96.83%.
4. Application in the extraction of total flavonoids from lotus seeds
Using lotus seed core as test material, ethanol solution as extractant, ultrasonic extraction method was used to conduct single factor experiment and L9(34) orthogonal experiment to study the effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, material-to-liquid ratio and extraction temperature on the extraction rate of total flavonoids influences. The results showed that the main factor affecting the extraction rate of total flavonoids in lotus seeds is ethanol concentration, followed by extraction temperature, material-to-liquid ratio, and ultrasonic extraction time; the best extraction conditions are: ethanol concentration 60%, extraction temperature 70℃, material liquid The ratio is 1:24g/mL, the ultrasonic extraction time is 30min, and the extraction rate of total flavonoids obtained under this condition is 10.86mg/g.
5. Application in oil extraction
Ultrasonic field enhanced oil extraction can significantly increase the extraction efficiency, improve the quality of the oil, save raw materials, and increase the amount of oil extracted. Bi Hongwei compared the homogenization method and ultrasonic extraction of γ2 linolenic acid. The results showed that the ultrasonic method can obtain more oil, which is 12.8% more than the homogenization method and saves manpower. Extracting peanut oil from peanuts can increase the output of peanut oil by 2.76 times. Gorodenrd et al. used ultrasonic extraction technology to extract oil from sunflower seeds, which increased the yield by 27% to 28%. When the amount of cottonseed is the same, the cottonseed oil is extracted with ethanol. If ultrasonic treatment with an intensity of 1.39W/cm2 is used, the amount of oil extracted within 1 hour is 8.3 times higher than that without ultrasonics. At present, the extraction of cod liver oil mainly adopts the dissolution method, which has a low oil yield and high temperature destroys vitamins. Ultrasound can also be used for the processing and extraction of animal oil, such as the extraction of cod liver oil. Soviet scholars used ultrasonic waves of 300, 600, 800, and 1500 kHz to extract cod liver oil. Almost all the fat in the tissues can be extracted within 2 to 5 minutes, the vitamins contained in it are not destroyed, and the oil quality is better than traditional methods.
The ultrasonic field can not only intensify the extraction process of substances by conventional fluids, but also intensify the extraction process of substances in the supercritical state. Chen Jun et al. conducted an experimental study on the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical CO2 fluid extraction process. The wheat germ oil was extracted from the malt germ. After the supercritical fluid extraction was added with an ultrasonic field, the extraction rate of the wheat germ oil was increased by about 10% without causing wheat germ oil. Degradation of germ oil. Ultrasonic extraction is very active in the research and application of oil extraction. The experiments and applications that have been carried out involve the extraction of star anise oil, almond oil, clove oil, perilla oil, evening primrose oil, etc.
6. Application in protein extraction
Ultrasonic extraction of protein also has significant effects. For example, the conventional stirring method is used to extract soybean protein from the processed defatted soybean embryo, which rarely reaches 30% of the total protein content, and it is difficult to extract the thermally unstable 7S protein component. However, ultrasonic waves can not only crush the above-mentioned embryos in water to pulverize their proteins, but also liquefy 80% of the proteins, and also extract the thermally unstable 7S protein components. Liang Hanhua et al. conducted a series of experiments on different concentrations of soybean slurry, heat-treated soybean slurry before grinding, and the separated bean dregs through a series of experiments. The results show that the soybean slurry treated with ultrasonic waves has a significant increase in the protein content of soybean milk compared with those without treatment, and the increase range is between 12% and 20%. This shows that ultrasonic treatment does increase the protein extraction rate. The role of. Ultrasonic treatment can also increase the separation temperature of the slurry and reduce the viscosity of the slurry, which can be used to directly produce high-concentration (high-protein) soy milk products.
7. Application in polysaccharide extraction
Bletilla striata tubers were used as raw materials to extract crude polysaccharides of Bletilla striata. Comparison of various extraction methods showed that ultrasonic treatment at room temperature was the desired extraction method. The extraction of polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes fruit bodies is enhanced by ultrasound, which can increase the extraction rate of polysaccharides by 76.22%. Using ultrasonic hot water to extract Tremella polysaccharides, the extraction rate is 5% higher than the enzymatic method, and the extraction time is greatly shortened. The ultrasonic-catalyzed enzymatic extraction of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide mechanism, optimization plan, and the composition and structure of the degradation product have been systematically studied. At the same time, the extraction of cordyceps polysaccharide, lentinan and hericium polysaccharide has been studied. Compared with the traditional process , The ultrasonic enhanced extraction operation is simple, the extraction rate is high, and there is no material loss and no side reactions during the reaction process.
Research on the extraction of polysaccharides from seaweed by circulating air-lift ultrasonic crushing of Sargassum, it is found that the extraction rate of polysaccharides can be achieved at 100°C for 4 hours of stirring at room temperature for 20 minutes, which is significantly higher than the extraction rate of polysaccharides at 80°C for 4 hours of stirring. The study comparing the extraction of polysaccharides in Salviaofficinalis L. with ultrasonic and without ultrasonic also confirmed that ultrasonic extraction is an effective and enhanced extraction method.
8. Application in food analysis
Ultrasonic extraction is also used for the pretreatment of food samples. The national standard (GB5009.696) acid hydrolysis method for determining the fat content of luncheon meat is time-consuming and cumbersome, and it is not easy to master because of human factors. Peng Aihong used ultrasound to improve the method of acid hydrolysis to determine the fat content of luncheon meat. Ultrasonic extraction of samples does not require heating, which shortens the digestion time of samples and can simultaneously determine the fat content of large quantities of samples. Bai Yanling and others use ultrasonic waves to extract sodium cyclamate from foods, which can process dozens of samples at a time. The operation is simple and the precision and accuracy meet the requirements. Hao Zhenghong and others combined the ultrasonic extraction test conditions of soybean isoflavones and used HPLC method to determine the samples, which shortened the pretreatment time for the determination of soybean isoflavones by HPLC method, improved the extraction rate of soybean isoflavones, and established a more complete HPLC method for determination. The pretreatment and chromatographic analysis conditions of soybean isoflavones.
Contact Person: Ms. Hogo Lv